Background

Marine debris is defined as any solid material disposed of or abandoned in the marine environment. It is a chronic problem for Hawaiʻi that can be introduced by ships, arrive as wash from rivers, streams, and storm drains, or reach Hawaiʻi’s shores from ocean currents. Depending on its origin, marine debris also has the potential to introduce invasive species. Examples vary greatly, but include plastic bags, bottles, rubber slippers, derelict fishing gear, equipment, and nets, and abandoned or derelict vessels. Causes maybe accidental, natural disaster, illegal dumping, or abandonment of vessels. Land activities that can end up in the ocean include littering, dumping, improper waste management, and industrial losses. Also included are stormwater runoff, materials washed down storm drains, or trash deposited during storms, high winds, or waves.
A special case of marine debris is the materials adrift in the ocean or washing ashore that originated in the Japanese earthquake and tsunami of March 2011. These are referred to as Japan Tsunami Marine Debris (JTMD).
Aquatic invasive species (AIS) may be introduced in other ways through shipping activity, typically arriving through biofouling (previously referred to as hull fouling) or ballast water, or through purposeful introduction such as dumping. The majority of non-indigenous aquatic species seen in Hawai‘i today arrived on vessels as biofouling or in their ballasts. Many of these species cause negative impacts to important ecosystems.
Aquatic invasive species pose significant threat to Hawaiʻi’s native plants, animals, ecosystems, economy as well as the human population. While most island ecosystems in the world are highly vulnerable, Hawaiʻi’s isolation makes its ecosystems even more vulnerable than others.
Hawaiʻi contains 40% of the threatened and endangered species in the U.S. But as a major transportation hub and tourist destination, the threat of invasion can never be completely eradicated and requires constant vigilance.
According to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Hawai‘i has the highest per capita noncommercial fisheries catch in the nation at 1.4 million fishing trips for a total near 2.7 million fish in 2011. For commercial fishing, the port of Honolulu ranks among the top ten fishing ports in the nation with $83 million dollars of fish landed in Honolulu Harbor in 2011.
Benchmark - Where we are now
  • Hawaiʻi’s position in the North Pacific Gyre makes it a hotspot for the aggregation of marine debris. Large floating debris impacts marine life such as seabirds, Hawaiian monk seals, green sea turtles, and other species which ingest the debris or become entangled.
  • Concern over marine debris has received heightened attention recently as the world tracks JTMD. The Governor appointed Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) as the lead agency for JTMD, and they are preparing a response plan. The Department of Health (DOH) assesses and tests all JTMD for radiation.
  • The Hawai‘i Marine Debris Action Plan (HI-MDAP) (2013) preparation was facilitated by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. EPA with the active participation of the marine debris community, government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academic, and private interests.
  • DOH Compliance Assistance Office works with businesses to ensure compliance with DOH rules, regulations, and permits. This office held 24 workshops with businesses and other permit holders in 2012.
  • DOH Solid and Hazardous Waste Branch enforces illegal dumping in state waters and issues fines.
  • Fisheries – Both commercial and non-commercial fishing contribute to Hawaiʻi’s food security. Commercial fishing contributes directly to food security as well as to jobs in ways such as through fish auction, fish dealers, and grocers. Commercial fishers include bottomfish and pelagic fisheries, deepwater coral and coral reef fisheries, and crustacean fishing. Charter fishers are included in this category.
  • Recreational fishing is motivated by sport or pleasure. Fishermen often sell their catch through informal networks. Sport fishermen participate in several dozen fishing tournaments across the State of Hawai‘i annually. A 2006 University of Hawai‘i (UH) School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) report estimates the economic impact of direct fishing tournament spending at $6.2 million annually, with non-tournament expenses such as airfare and hotel accounting for an additional $5.1 million annually. Others fish for reasons beyond sport or pleasure, such as for subsistence, sustenance, and tradition. Some call this “ohana fishing.”

Target – Where we would like to be
  • Through implementation of strategic actions in the 2013 HI-MDAP , the State reduces and prevents the impacts of marine debris.
  • Through implementation of strategic actions in the Hawaiʻi Aquatic Invasive Species Plan (2003) there is reduction of existing invasive species and further introductions can be avoided or eliminated shortly after they are discovered.
  • A permanent statewide AIS Coordinator is hired.
  • Education and awareness are increased as a major management strategy to more effectively control and prevent degradation of the ocean and coastal resources.
  • Research and development of new, innovative technologies for exploring, using, or protecting marine and coastal resources exists.


Increase in number of urchins outplanted to control invasive algae

The Anuenue Sea Urchin Hatchery is a component of the State of Hawaiʻi’s Aquatic Invasive Species Team (AIS) within the Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR). The hatchery has been raising the Native Hawaiian Collector Urchin, hawa‘e maoli (Tripneustes gratilla), for the purpose of removing reef-smothering algae and restoring Hawaiʻi's coral reef ecosystems. Work at the hatchery complements the efforts of the Hawaiʻi Super Sucker team in Kaneohe Bay.
More than 400,000 urchins have been out-planted since the beginning of the program in 2011. The number of urchins out-planted changes from year-to-year due to varying production levels in the Anuenue Sea Urchin Hatchery.
Agency: Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources
Images: DLNR-DARNOAA
Video: 'HISAW Invasive Species Algae', DLNR


In 2016, approximately 13 acres of coral patch reefs were treated with urchins for biocontrol. DLNR-DAR supplied urchin larvae and technical support to Oceanic Institute, Hawaiʻi Pacific, and Chaminade Universities.

Increase in number of pounds of invasive algae removed

The Super Sucker is a device which consists of a barge-based, 40-horsepower pump and large hose. Divers use this 'underwater vacuum' to remove invasive algae from the reef. Local farmers use the collected algae as a nutrient-rich fertilizer for various crops, including taro and sweet potato, because of its high potassium content and potential ability to repel insects. Once large quantities of algae is removed by the Super Sucker, sea urchins are used to control algae regrowth. More than 284,000 pounds of invasive algae have been removed from Kaneohe Bay since the beginning of 2012.

Beginning in 2014, the amount of invasive algae found in the bay was observedly in decline. Because algae biomass has been reduced below the effectiveness threshold of the Super Sucker device, management activities have shifted solely to the out-planting of urchins. This shift is evident in the graph below, which displays that no algae biomass has been removed with the Super Sucker since 2015. The effective control of algae biomass in Kaneohe Bay has allowed DLNR-DAR to increase management efforts towards other aquatic invasive species.

For more information, see the DLNR-DAR Super Sucker Webpage or the Super Sucker Facebook page.

Agency: Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources

Images: (Above) Diver removing algae with the Super Sucker, Reef Resilience, (Below) Algae removal from reef, NOAA

Video: 'Super Sucker with Scuba', DLNR-DAR 
Before Super Sucker Algae Removal
After Super Sucker Algae Removal

A permanent state position for the AIS Program is established, funded, and filled

In 2014, a permanent state position for the AIS Program Coordinator was established and funded.

Agency: Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources


Title Image: Flickr