Background

Marine debris is defined as any solid material disposed of or abandoned in the marine environment. It is a chronic problem for Hawaiʻi that can be introduced by ships, arrive as wash from rivers, streams, and storm drains, or reach Hawaiʻi’s shores from ocean currents. Depending on its origin, marine debris also has the potential to introduce invasive species. Examples vary greatly, but include plastic bags, bottles, rubber slippers, derelict fishing gear, equipment, and nets, and abandoned or derelict vessels. Causes maybe accidental, natural disaster, illegal dumping, or abandonment of vessels. Land activities that can end up in the ocean include littering, dumping, improper waste management, and industrial losses. Also included are stormwater runoff, materials washed down storm drains, or trash deposited during storms, high winds, or waves.
A special case of marine debris is the materials adrift in the ocean or washing ashore that originated in the Japanese earthquake and tsunami of March 2011. These are referred to as Japan Tsunami Marine Debris (JTMD).
Aquatic invasive species (AIS) may be introduced in other ways through shipping activity, typically arriving through biofouling (previously referred to as hull fouling) or ballast water, or through purposeful introduction such as dumping. The majority of non-indigenous aquatic species seen in Hawai‘i today arrived on vessels as biofouling or in their ballasts. Many of these species cause negative impacts to important ecosystems.
Aquatic invasive species pose significant threat to Hawaiʻi’s native plants, animals, ecosystems, economy as well as the human population. While most island ecosystems in the world are highly vulnerable, Hawaiʻi’s isolation makes its ecosystems even more vulnerable than others.
Hawaiʻi contains 40% of the threatened and endangered species in the U.S. But as a major transportation hub and tourist destination, the threat of invasion can never be completely eradicated and requires constant vigilance.
According to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Hawai‘i has the highest per capita noncommercial fisheries catch in the nation at 1.4 million fishing trips for a total near 2.7 million fish in 2011. For commercial fishing, the port of Honolulu ranks among the top ten fishing ports in the nation with $83 million dollars of fish landed in Honolulu Harbor in 2011.
Benchmark - Where we are now
  • Hawaiʻi’s position in the North Pacific Gyre makes it a hotspot for the aggregation of marine debris. Large floating debris impacts marine life such as seabirds, Hawaiian monk seals, green sea turtles, and other species which ingest the debris or become entangled.
  • Concern over marine debris has received heightened attention recently as the world tracks JTMD. The Governor appointed Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) as the lead agency for JTMD, and they are preparing a response plan. The Department of Health (DOH) assesses and tests all JTMD for radiation.
  • The Hawai‘i Marine Debris Action Plan (HI-MDAP) (2013) preparation was facilitated by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. EPA with the active participation of the marine debris community, government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academic, and private interests.
  • DOH Compliance Assistance Office works with businesses to ensure compliance with DOH rules, regulations, and permits. This office held 24 workshops with businesses and other permit holders in 2012.
  • DOH Solid and Hazardous Waste Branch enforces illegal dumping in state waters and issues fines.
  • Fisheries – Both commercial and non-commercial fishing contribute to Hawaiʻi’s food security. Commercial fishing contributes directly to food security as well as to jobs in ways such as through fish auction, fish dealers, and grocers. Commercial fishers include bottomfish and pelagic fisheries, deepwater coral and coral reef fisheries, and crustacean fishing. Charter fishers are included in this category.
  • Recreational fishing is motivated by sport or pleasure. Fishermen often sell their catch through informal networks. Sport fishermen participate in several dozen fishing tournaments across the State of Hawai‘i annually. A 2006 University of Hawai‘i (UH) School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) report estimates the economic impact of direct fishing tournament spending at $6.2 million annually, with non-tournament expenses such as airfare and hotel accounting for an additional $5.1 million annually. Others fish for reasons beyond sport or pleasure, such as for subsistence, sustenance, and tradition. Some call this “ohana fishing.”

Target – Where we would like to be
  • Through implementation of strategic actions in the 2013 HI-MDAP, the State reduces and prevents the impacts of marine debris.
  • Through implementation of strategic actions in the Hawaiʻi Aquatic Invasive Species Plan (2003) there is reduction of existing invasive species and further introductions can be avoided or eliminated shortly after they are discovered.
  • A permanent statewide AIS Coordinator is hired.
  • Education and awareness are increased as a major management strategy to more effectively control and prevent degradation of the ocean and coastal resources.
  • Research and development of new, innovative technologies for exploring, using, or protecting marine and coastal resources exists.


Increase in number of ballast water reports processed

To manage the invasive species risks associated with ballast water and biofouling, the Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) was given authority by the Legislature to establish an Alien Aquatic Organism Task Force (AAOTF). AAOTF has representatives from the maritime industry, boating groups, state and federal governments, conservation groups and the scientific community.

Together with the AAOTF, DLNR developed administrative rules to manage ballast water. On October 12, 2007, new rules were adopted to manage ballast water discharge from vessels operating in Hawaiian waters. The rules are intended to minimize introduction and spread of non-indigenous aquatic organisms into waters surrounding the Hawaiian Islands.

The rules require vessels that carry ballast water to:
  • Follow the Hawaiʻi Administrative Rules (HRS) §13-76 (2007)
  • Possess a ballast water management plan specifically for that vessel;
  • File a ballast water reporting form to the DLNR no later than 24 hours prior to arrival by fax or email;
  • Conduct a mid-ocean ballast water exchange (empty-refill or flow through) or retain all ballast water on board; Obtain approval from the DLNR prior to discharging "untreated" ballast water into State waters.
  • Be prepared to show DLNR personnel relevant ballast water reporting forms, ballasting operation log book(s), and access to ballast water and tanks in question
More than 2,600 ballast water reports have been processed since the beginning of 2012.
Agency: Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources
Images: (Above) Getty Images, (Right) DLNR AIS

Rules for managing biofouling on vessels are developed and adopted

Vessel biofouling is the attachment of organisms to wetted areas of a ship or boat, usually below the waterline; this can include the hull, propeller, bilge keel, keel coolers, thruster, inlet gratings, anodes, sea chests etc. Besides from being a biosecurity risk to the environment, biofouling can drastically reduce fuel efficiency, increase vessel output of carbon emissions, and compromise crew safety during transit.

As of 2017, biofouling regulations are being developed. For more information, see the DLNR-DAR Biofouling Webpage.

Agency: Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources

Images: (Above) Getty Images, (Below) Honolulu Civil Beat, NOAA

Ongoing funding is created for the Ballast Water and Hull Fouling Prevention Program

(Data coming soon)

Agency: Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources

Image: The Maritime Executive


Title Image: Flickr